German Perfekt, Das Perfekt - Past tense in German

01.08.2019
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German Perfekt, Das Perfekt - Past tense in German

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German Perfekt Lecture

We will examine Das Perfekt in German in this course titled German Perfekt.
Like Perfekt de Präteritum -deki means past time. As you can see, past time cues explain the actions that have been done in the past.

There are certain differences between Perfekt and Präteritum in German; Prateritum is usually used in writing language, used in idioms, in tables, in novels or in stories, Perfekt is used in spoken language, not in works such as novels and stories.

These two times can express all past tenses by place, with the exception of past tense.
For example, they can cover times like "work", "work", "work" but they are not used for "work" or "work".

German Perfekt

Until today, we have studied the present tense (Präsens) and the past tense (called Prateritum or Imperfect) in German.

As we have seen in our previous lessons, in the time of Präteritum and Präsens,

Präteritum and Präsens Sentence Pattern: OVERVIEW OTHER ITEMS

But for Perfekt (-ddi past time) this order changes. The pattern used in German Perfekt is as follows:

Perfekt Sentence Pattern: OZNE YARDIMCI VERIFE OTHER ITEMS

As you can see, here we have not seen in previous lessons auxiliary verb So now let's give some information about auxiliary verbs in German.

Assisted Verbs in German

German Perfekt two auxiliary verbs are used in sentence setup; HABEN and SEIN are auxiliary fillers.
These fillers do not make sense when they are used as auxiliary verbs, so they can not be translated into Turkish. However, these words have their meanings as their original verbs.

When Perfekt is done in German, these acts are used according to the present time (Präsens). (This rule does not confuse your head, we give you additional information, you know enough)
Now let's take these actions according to the current time.

Almancada Haben and Sein Shots

GERMAN HABEN AND SEEN POULTRY
PARTIES the COMM SEA
ben / ich have bin
sen / du have are
o / er / sie / es hat is
we / wir have are
you / ihr habt seidema
they / sie have are
you / Sie have are
The table above German PerfektThe shooting of the haben and sein helping fingers are given according to the persons.

  • The auxiliary verb will be determined according to the essence of the cümlen, eg "bin" or "habe" will be used as a cumulative auxiliary verb with the subject being the first singular person "ich".
  • The subject will be the second plural person, ie a "habt" or "seid".
MISSING THIS: German Present Time (Präsens) and German Cümleler
It is necessary to attract these auxiliary acts according to the essence, the above table should be memorized, because the sentences made with perfekt are subject-auxiliary verbal compatibility.

The main verb (partizip perfekt) does not change according to the persons, it is the same for all persons (see below). Therefore Perfekt subject-auxiliary verb compatibility vardır.

Since we will use the auxiliary verb in Perfekt then we have two auxiliary verbs, "haben" and "sein", in which case will we use "haben" or "sein"?

Which one will we choose from? What do we choose?
Our answer to these questions is shudder: We determine which auxiliary verb is used in Perfekt by looking at the main verb.

Some verbs are used, some are used, some verbs are used. We decide which verb is to be used by looking at the main verb of the verb cümlen.

The most commonly used auxiliary verb in Perfekt is "have& Quot; Some of the particularly irregular verbs are "breast"Is used.
You can see in which verb seizure, verb, and verb in the following verb list.
As we have already said, German has a structure that requires intensive grammatical grammaticalization, so you have to memorize which verbs are used, which verbs are used, and which verbs are used.
Here is a small grouping; it is used as the verb "sein" which gives meaning to a change of state or movement (for example, going down from below, going out, going from right to left, or going in any direction on the flat surface).

To see the most commonly used irregular verbs with their meanings, to see which verbs are used and which verbs to use, see the images below. The following pictures show the German verbs.




In the tables above, the first column (leftmost) contains the infinitive form of the verb, in the second column the Partizip Perfekt form is given. column shows the auxiliary verb to be used with this verb.

In Perfekt, mostly “haben” auxiliary verb is used.

Main verse in Almancil Partizip Perfekt

Partizip Perfekt, Perfekt is a special form of verb used when constructing sentences.
At the same time, we will use the Partizp Perfekt state of the verbs while creating the Plusquamperfect time we will see in the future.

MISSING THIS: German Multiple Clauses, Plural of German Codes

Partizip Perfekt is not a state of affair according to the person, it is a state obtained by introducing some additions and it is necessary to memorize the states of Partizip Perfekt in order to make a sentence in Perfekt (past time with -di).

As we have seen in our previous lessons, we were bringing some appendices that changed depending on the person at the root of the verb to establish a sentence in Präsens, ie the present time or Präteritum, but this is not the case at that time. Perfekt uses the form of Partizip Perfekt as the verb, attachments vary according to the persons.
Partifip Perfekt is found at the very end and does not change according to the persons. When changing the sentences, the main verb (Partizip Perfekt in this name) does not change according to the persons, and there is only one verse for all the individuals.

In fact, Partizip Perfekt is brought to the scene by adding some suffixes, but it is necessary to know the particulars of Partizip Perfekt individually because of the fact that it is not clear what to add, especially in irregular verbs.
But a simple rule for regular verbs can be given, and it is possible to construct the Partizip Perfekt forms of regular verbs by doing this rule.

The Partizip Perfekt of regular actions is derived from the following rule:

German Partizip Perfekt: ge takısı + fiilin kökü + t takısı

Examples:

"lieben"The roots of the verb"liebe"In order to obtain the Partizip Perfekt state of the verb, ge at the end of the root t We add.
I mean: ge lieb t -> geliebter (Note: in order to find the root of a verb, the infinitive of that verb is removed, where the infinitive is the verb, so the lieb word remains.)

listen the root of the verb include Stop. In order to obtain the Partizip Perfekt of this verb, ge we add, at the end of the root t We add.
I mean: ge hör t ---> belongs

Therefore, lieben Partizip Perfekt of the verb geliebter d. listen Partizip perfekt of the verb belongs Stop.
In this way, you can also create Partizip Perfekt cases of regular actions.

As we have said before, you can find plenty of exceptions in German grammar. There are a few exceptions that apply here.
1. Some regular acts do not take geeks to their fronts.
2. It inserts an e letter between t and the root of the verb when adding t tuples to the tuples whose roots are d, t, m, n.
Therefore, the actions entering this group must also be memorized.
As for irregular verbs; Unfortunately, such a rule cannot be given for irregular verbs. Therefore, each irregular verb, at least the most commonly used Perfekt of the partizip must be memorized one by one.
Information about the Partizip Perfekt of irregular verbs will be given below.

MISSING THIS: German Name Codes

Let's continue with a few small examples in order to summarize the theme and let Perfekt write the settled sentences.

Perfekt, which means simple sentences established in the past tense:

ich habe gehört: Duydum

ich: Subject (1, singular person)
habe: Auxiliary verb (verb conjugation of haben verb 1)
gehört: Main verb (Partizip Perfekt form of the verb verb)

Here we used the auxiliary verb “haben”, because “haben“ is used with the verb “hören ((Memorization).

sie haben gehört: Duydular

sie: Subject (3, plural)
haben: auxiliary verb (verb conjugation of haben verb 3)
gehört: Main verb (Partizip Perfekti of the verb verb)

erk gehört: Duydu

er: Subject (3, individual)
line: auxiliary verb (shots according to the individual 3 of haben verb)
gehört: Main verb (Partizip Perfekti of the verb verb)

ich bin erkrankt: I was ill (I was ill)

ich: Subject (1, singular person)
bin: Auxiliary verb (sein verb with 1.
erkrankt: Main verb (Partizip Perfekti of erkranken verb)

Here we use the verb “sein”, because en sein ”is used with the verb“ early r (Memorization).

sie ist erkrankt: I was sick (sick)

sie: Subject (3, single person)
ist: Auxiliary verb (sein verb xNUMX according to the individual)
erkrankt: Main verb (Partizip Perfekti of erkranken verb)

As seen in the simple examples above, Partizip Perfekt does not change according to the individual, but remains the same for all persons. The thing that varies according to the individual is the auxiliary verb. Parsizip Perfekt (basic verb) is found at the end of the cümlen.
The auxiliary verb comes after the subject, for example it is enough to change the position of the auxiliary verb to make the question.

er hat geört: Heard.
What's wrong? : Did you hear?

du hast gehört: Hear it.
hast du gehört? : Have you heard?

Examples can be given.

Now that we have learned the main elements of Perfekt, sentence sequence, auxiliary verb and partizip perfekt.Now let us write a few sentences. There is no difference between the regular and irregular verbs in terms of the arrangement of the cümlenler, the only difference is the formation of Partizip Perfekt.You have given rules for regular verbs above, this rule does not apply to irregular verbs.

So let's give the visuals we have given above again and examine the meanings of the most commonly used irregular verbs, the Partizip Perfects, and the auxiliary verb (sein / haben) to be used one by one:




In the tables above, the first column (leftmost) contains the infinitive form of the verb, in the second column the Partizip Perfekt form is given. column shows the auxiliary verb to be used with this verb.

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VISITOR COMMENTS - 46 COMMENT
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  6. sapling She said:

    Perfekt in German It is also called Das Perfekt, which means the Past Tense in German.

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